Biotin acts as a carrier of CO2 in carboxylation reactions. Dietary sources: biotin is widely distributed in both animal and plant foods. The rich sources are liver, kidney, egg yolk, milk, tomatoes, grains, etc. Recommended daily requirement: mg for adults, but this vitamin is abundantly synthesized by the intestinal bacteria. Deficiency symptoms: symptoms include anemia, loss of appetite, nausea, dermatitis, glossitis etc. Pantothenic acid Pantothenic acid, also known as chick anti-dermatitis factor or filtrate factor, is widely distributed in nature.
The functions of pantothenic acid are exerted through coenzyme A or CoA. CoA is the central molecule involved in all the metabolisms carbohydrate, lipid and protein , acting as the carrier of activated acetyl or acyl groups. Recommended dietary requirement: mg for adults. Dietary sources: widely distributed in plants and animals, rich sources are egg, liver, meat, yeast, milk etc. Deficiency symptoms: no deficiency manifestations in man www. Folic acid Folic acid or folacin is abundantly found in green leafy vegetables.
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It is important for one carbon metabolism and is required for the synthesis of certain amino acids, purines and the pyrimidine-thymine. Tetrahydrofolate THF or FH4 , the coenzyme of folic acid is actively involved in the one carbon metabolism. THF serves as an acceptor or donor of carbon units in a variety of reactions involving amino acid and nucleotide metabolism.
Recommended daily requirement: around ug.
Dietary sources: the rich sources are green leafy vegetables, whole grains, cereals, liver, kidney, yeast and eggs. Due to block in DNA synthesis, the maturation of erythrocytes is slowed down leading to macrocytic RBC leading to macrocytic anemia www. Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12 is also known as anti-pernicious anemia vitamin and extrinsic factor of Castle. It has derived the names of cobalamine and cyanocobalamine due to the presence of cobalt and cyanide groups.
Ebook The Nature And Function Of The Antineuritic Vitamine 1919
B12 helps in the formation of labile methyl groups, for the synthesis of thymine and therefore for synthesis of nucleic acids, and along with folic acid for the normal hemopoisis. Dietary sources: not seen in plant foods. Animal sources are liver, kidney, eggs, milk, and meat. Deficiency symptoms: most important is pernicious anemia characterized by low hemoglobin levels, decreased number of erythrocytes and neurological manifestations.
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Vitamin like compounds These are components present in food and act as accessory factors. They are Choline : it is trimethylhydroxy ethylammonium hydroxide. It is a component of phospholipids, acts as a lipotropic factor, takes part in one carbon metabolism and in transmission of nerve impulse. Inositol: is hexahydroxy-cyclohexane. The biomechanical response to altered function and applied loads depends on the metabolic status of the patient.
Bone modeling and remodeling are distinct physiologic responses to integrated metabolic and mechanical demands.
Biomechanical manipulation of bone is the physiologic basis of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Maintaining zero calcium balance requires optimal function of the gut, parathyroid glands, bone, liver and kidney. Calcium homeostasis Calcium homeostasis is the process by which mineral equilibrium is maintained.
When substantial calcium is needed to maintain the critical serum calcium level, bone structure is sacrifice. The alveolar processes and basilar bone of the jaws also are subject to metabolic bone loss. Calcium homeostasis is supported by three temporally related mechanisms: 1.
Rapid flux of calcium from the bone fluid occurs in seconds 2. Short-term response by osteoclasts and osteoblasts extends from minutes to days and 3. Long term control of bone turnover over weeks to www. Instantaneous regulation of calcium homeostasis is accomplished in seconds by selective transfer of calcium ions into and out of bone fluid. Bone fluid is separated from extracellular fluid by osteoblasts or relatively thin bone-lining cells. A decrease in the serum calcium level stimulates secretion of PTH, which enhances transport of calcium ions from bone fluid into osteocytes and bone-lining cells.
The active metabolite of vitamin D 1,DHCC enhances pumping of calcium ions from bone-lining calls into the extracellular fluid.
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Within physiologic limits it is possible to support calcium homeostasis without resorbing bone. However, a sustained negative balance can be compensated for only by removing calcium from bone surfaces. Calcitonin, a hormone produced by the interstitial cells of the thyroid gland, is believed to help control hypercalcemia by transiently suppressing bone resorption. Long term regulation has profound effects on the skeleton. Biomechanical factors, noncalcific hormones, and the metabolite mechanisms dictate mass, geometric distribution and the mean age of the bone.
Flowchart of calcium homeostasis showing the roles of PTH, vitamin D, the kidneys, gut and bone. One of the basic changes is a keratinizing metaplasia of the epithelial cells, occurring throughout the body including the oral mucous membrane and salivary glands. The teeth of animals on a vitamin A deficient diet contains less ash than the teeth of normal animals.
Absence of this vitamin during the period when dental structures are formed results in disturbance in the calcification of enamel and dentin, retards tooth eruption. The alveolar bone is retarded in its rate of formation. There is, however, an association between vitamin K insufficiency and reductions in bone density and possibly bone strength.
This may be of particular concern among people taking vitamin K antagonists such as oral anticoagulants as a significant decrease in bone mineral density has been observed. The most common oral manifestation of vitamin K deficiency is gingival bleeding. The very structure of the body - the skin, bones, teeth, blood vessels, cartilage, tendons and ligaments - depends on collagen. And the integrity of collagen, in turn, depends on vitamin C.
In a report on ascorbic acid in Vitamin Intake and Health, S.
Gaby and V. Singh explain that collagen protein requires vitamin C for "hydroxylation," a process that allows the molecule to achieve the best configuration and prevents collagen from becoming weak and susceptible to damage. Beyond that, they say, recent evidence indicates that vitamin C increases the level of procollagen messenger RNA. Vitamin C is required to export the procollagen molecules out of the cell. The final The oral manifestations of vitamin C deficiency occur chiefly in the gingival and periodontal tissues.
The interdental and marginal gingiva is swollen, bright red, with a smooth and shiny surface. In fully developed scurvy, the gingiva becomes boggy, ulcerates and bleeds. The color changes to a violaceous red. Formation of intercellular cement substances in connective tissues, bones, and dentin is defective, resulting in weakened capillaries with subsequent hemorrhage and defects in bone and related structures. Hemorrhagic areas are organized avascularly, so that wounds heal poorly and break open easily.
Endochondral growth ceases because osteoblasts fail to form osteoid tissue, resulting in bone lesions. Instead, a fibrous union forms between the diaphysis and the epiphysis, and costochondral junctions enlarge.erisixdiemu.ga
Vitamin B1 – Functions, Food Sources, Deficiencies and Toxicity
Densely calcified fragments of cartilage are embedded in this fibrous tissue. Small ecchymotic hemorrhages within or along the bone or large subperiosteal hemorrhages due to small fractures just shaftward of the white line complicate these lesions. Oper Dent. AD, Turkun. M Reversal of dentin bonding to bleached teeth.
Many studies have shown a considerable reduction in enamel bond strength of resin composite restorations when the bonding procedure is carried out immediately after bleaching.
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