Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition

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This bidirectional influence results in the remarkable intercultural and intracultural diversity evident in our planet. Social cognitive theory is rooted in a view of human agency in which individuals are agents proactively engaged in their own development and can make things happen by their actions. Bandura provided a view of human behavior in which the beliefs that people have about themselves are critical elements in the exercise of control and personal agency.

Thus, individuals are viewed both as products and as producers of their own environments and of their social systems. Because human lives are not lived in isolation, Bandura expanded the conception of human agency to include collective agency. People work together on shared beliefs about their capabilities and common aspirations to better their lives. This conceptual extension makes the theory applicable to human adaptation and change in collectivistically-oriented societies as well as individualistically-oriented ones.

Environments and social systems influence human behavior through psychological mechanisms of the self system. Hence, social cognitive theory posits that factors such as economic conditions, socioeconomic status, and educational and familial structures do not affect human behavior directly. In all, this social cognitive view of human and collective functioning, which marked a departure from the prevalent behaviorist and learning theories of the day, was to have a profound influence on psychological thinking and theorizing during the last two decades of the twentieth century and into the new millennium.

Primary among these are the capabilities to symbolize, plan alternative strategies forethought , learn through vicarious experience, self-regulate, and self-reflect. These capabilities provide human beings with the cognitive means by which they are influential in determining their own destiny.

Perspective ARTICLE

By drawing on their symbolic capabilities, they can extract meaning from their environment, construct guides for action, solve problems cognitively, support forethoughtful courses of action, gain new knowledge by reflective thought, and communicate with others at any distance in time and space. For Bandura, symbols are the vehicle of thought, and it is by symbolizing their experiences that they can provide their lives with structure, meaning, and continuity.

Symbolizing also enables people to store the information required to guide future behaviors. It is through this process that they are able to model observed behavior. People plan courses of action, anticipate the likely consequences of these actions, and set goals and challenges for themselves to motivate, guide and regulate their activities. It is because of the capability to plan alternative strategies that one can anticipate the consequences of an action without actually engaging in it. People learn not only from their own experience but by observing the behaviors of others.

1 Introduction

In many situation, it keeps them from risking costly and potentially fatal mistakes. The observation is symbolically coded and used as a guide for future action. Observational learning is governed by the processes of attention, retention, production, and motivation.

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For their part, observed behaviors can be reproduced only if they are retained in memory, a process made possible by the human capability to symbolize. Production refers to the process of engaging in the observed behavior. Finally, if engaging in the observed behavior produces valued results and expectation, the individual is motivated to adopt the behavior and repeat it in the future. The manner and degree to which people self-regulate their own actions and behavior involve the accuracy and consistency of their self-observation and self-monitoring, the judgments they make regarding their actions, choices, and attributions, and, finally, the evaluative and tangible reactions they make to their own behavior through the self-regulatory process.

Through self-reflection, people make sense of their experiences, explore their own cognitions and self-beliefs, engage in self-evaluation, and alter their thinking and behavior accordingly. Self-efficacy beliefs provide the foundation for human motivation, well-being, and personal accomplishment. This is because unless people believe that their actions can produce the outcomes they desire, they have little incentive to act or to persevere in the face of difficulties. Self-efficacy is also a critical determinant of self-regulation.

Of course, human functioning is influenced by many factors. The success or failure that people experience as they engage the myriad tasks that comprise their life naturally influence the many decisions they must make. Also, the knowledge and skills they possess will certainly play critical roles in what they choose to do and not do. Individuals interpret the results of their attainments, however, just as they make judgments about the quality of the knowledge and skills they posses.

Imagine, for example, a student who has just received a grade of B on a term paper.

Social cognition

In and of itself, attaining a grade of B has no inherent causal properties. What can we predict about how receiving such a grade will affect a student?

For the former, the B will be received with disappointment; for the latter, the B is likely to be received with elation. For this reason, how people behave can often be better predicted by the beliefs they hold about their capabilities than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing, for these self-efficacy perceptions help determine what individuals do with the knowledge and skills they have. For example, many talented people suffer frequent and sometimes debilitating bouts of self-doubt about capabilities they clearly possess, just as many individuals are confident about what they can accomplish despite possessing a modest repertoire of skills.

Belief and reality are seldom perfectly matched, and individuals are typically guided by their beliefs when they engage the world. Of course, no amount of confidence or self-appreciation can produce success when requisite skills and knowledge are absent. It bears noting that self-efficacy beliefs are themselves critical determinants of how well knowledge and skill are acquired in the first place.

The contention that self-efficacy beliefs are a critical ingredient in human functioning is consistent with the view of many theorists and philosophers who have argued that the potent affective, evaluative, and episodic nature of beliefs make them a filter through which new phenomena are interpreted e.

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Typically, of course, self-efficacy beliefs help determine the outcomes one expects. Confident individuals anticipate successful outcomes. Students confident in their social skills anticipate successful social encounters. Those confident in their academic skills expect high marks on exams and expect the quality of their work to reap personal and professional benefits. The opposite is true of those who lack confidence. Students who doubt their social skills often envision rejection or ridicule even before they establish social contact. Those who lack confidence in their academic skills envision a low grade before they begin an examination or enroll in a course.

The expected results of these imagined performances will be differently envisioned: social success or greater career options for the former, social isolation or curtailed academic possibilities for the latter. Because the outcomes we expect are themselves the result of the judgments of what we can accomplish, our outcome expectations are unlikely to contribute to predictions of behavior. Moreover, efficacy and outcome judgments are sometimes inconsistent. A high sense of efficacy may not result in behavior consistent with that belief, however, if the individual also believes that the outcome of engaging in that behavior will have undesired effects.

A student highly self-efficacious in her academic capabilities may elect not to apply to a particular university whose entrance requirements are such as to discourage all but the hardiest souls. Low self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations are also possible. For example, students may realize that strong mathematics skills are essential for a good GRE score and eligibility for graduate school, and this, in turn, may ensure a comfortable lifestyle, but poor confidence in math abilities are likely to keep them away from certain courses and they may not even bother with the GRE or graduate school.

In the social arena, a young man may realize that pleasing social graces and physical attractiveness will be essential for wooing the young lass who has caught his eye, which, in turn, may lead to a romantic interlude and even a lasting relationship. If, however, he has low confidence in his social capabilities and doubts his physical appearance, he will likely shy away from making contact and hence miss a potentially promising opportunity. Because individuals operate collectively as well as individually, self-efficacy is both a personal and a social construct.

For example, schools develop collective beliefs about the capability of their students to learn, of their teachers to teach and otherwise enhance the lives of their students, and of their administrators and policymakers to create environments conducive to these tasks. Organizations with a strong sense of collective efficacy exercise empowering and vitalizing influences on their constituents, and these effects are palpable and evident.

Self-efficacy beliefs can enhance human accomplishment and well-being in countless ways. They influence the choices people make and the courses of action they pursue. Individuals tend to select tasks and activities in which they feel competent and confident and avoid those in which they do not. Unless people believe that their actions will have the desired consequences, they have little incentive to engage in those actions.

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How far will an interest in architecture take a student who feels hopeless in geometry? Whatever factors operate to influence behavior, they are rooted in the core belief that one has the capability to accomplish that behavior. Self-efficacy beliefs also help determine how much effort people will expend on an activity, how long they will persevere when confronting obstacles, and how resilient they will be in the face of adverse situations.

The higher the sense of efficacy, the greater the effort, persistence, and resilience. An experiment by Schunk and Hanson, that studied grade 2 students who had previously experienced difficulty in learning subtraction, illustrates the type of research stimulated by social learning theory.

The Social Cognitive Theory

One group of students observed a subtraction demonstration by a teacher and then participated in an instructional program on subtraction. A second group observed other grade 2 students performing the same subtraction procedures and then participated in the same instructional program.

The students who observed peer models scored higher on a subtraction post-test and also reported greater confidence in their subtraction ability. The results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that perceived similarity of the model to the learner increases self-efficacy, leading to more effective learning of modeled behavior.

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Social Cognitive Theory

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Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition
Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition
Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition
Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition
Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition
Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition

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