The theoretical perspective of this article will be informed by a constructivist approach, since such approaches have radically altered our understanding of sexuality by raising questions about the social and historical contexts that surround it. In China the history of sexually transmitted disease STD epidemics shows that the ways in which sexuality is managed have a greater impact than disease control measures or health education. Recent studies have revealed marked shifts in the expression of sexuality. This article has three sections.
The first gives an analytical overview of current scientific literature, and of the available data concerning sexual behaviour and its representation. The second deals with governmental action and pronouncements in relation to the dynamics of the Aids epidemic and the risks of sexual transmission.
They are also proving excellent as means by which the changing sphere of sexuality and the range of opinions and practices that these changes are bringing into being can be analysed and considered 1. Thus in response to the Aids epidemic, a certain remoulding of sexual behaviour takes place. This also involves an affective model of emotional states and moral principles aimed at institutionalising whatever is felt to be normal, necessary or collectively approved 6.
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Nowadays, attempts by the state to control sexuality have become a matter of policy. The development of official strategies in the struggle against Aids reveals a progressive institutionalisation of preventive measures, and the takeover by the state of health initiatives originally launched by a network of organisations, mostly under the umbrella of the UN and international NGOs.
This political takeover of the struggle against Aids has been accompanied by a whole official discourse aimed at controlling both sexual practices and all representations relating to sexual issues. Consequent marked shifts in the sexual arena have been revealed by recent studies 8 and by data from a nationwide report 9. With regard to this report, Erwin J.
For example, the fact that a large majority of students university undergraduates see their sex education as too conservative, reveals reactions which are globally shared in our rapidly changing world. Anything new in such messages is due to the triumph of consumerism, and economic and cultural globalisation. Thus three separate systems of representation and practice co-exist within contemporary Chinese society, generating tensions at the level of values, behaviour and acts.
The first system arises from the manifold and constantly evolving Chinese tradition itself The second was introduced by Marxist ideology and fed into the project for building a socialist society. And the third can be attributed to a global model which affects China as much as the rest of the world. The first gives an analytical overview of current scientific literature, and of the available data concerning sexual behaviour and its representations. The second deals with governmental action and pronouncements, insofar as they concern the dynamics of the Aids epidemic and the risks of sexual transmission.
We should note from the start that the very existence of the works referred to in the first part is itself a sign of change. Despite being controversial, these works have received official support. The critical analyses of the national report on sexuality published in written by Liu Dalin, often referred to as the Chinese Kinsey throw considerable light on the existence of a wide range of sexual discourses.
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According to Pan himself, he made his translation available to Liu who then took the Kinsey report as his model However, STDs including Aids had already been identified as a problem linked to sexual behaviour, which called for social measures and health initiatives. The goal was to identify problems related to individual sexuality, with particular attention to young people, to the control and management of sexual matters, and to the spread of STDs.
Some doctors at the time, particularly Doctor Wu who headed the Academy of Medicine, and Professor Ruan of the University medical faculty 18 , both originally from Peking, were precursors in sexological research. Moreover, after a decade of openness and reform, the existence of sexual problems and of gaps in sex education were officially acknowledged, and they attracted a measure of public interest. An increase in the number of love affairs between secondary and high school students.
An increase in pre-marital sexual relations. An increase in extra-marital sexual relations. An increase in the number of cases of sexual incompatibility between married partners. A growth in sexual offences. According to the Shanghai statistical bureau, the number of reported rapes increased fourfold between and , while the age of the rapists fell. Gang rapes became more numerous, more violent, and more premeditated A growth in the sex trade. Under the reforms, the sex trade has expanded from the coastal regions into the towns and villages of central China.
In , the number of prostitutes arrested was times greater than in The spread of STDs, including Aids. An increase in the number of pornographic publications. Periodic campaigns to eradicate pornography testify to its widespread use. Increasing confusion in the understanding of sexuality. Moreover, ideas from the capitalist West have been spread over the last century, to which have been added communist doctrines from the post period, and these have undergone further alterations by the latest fashions and behaviour imported from Europe and the United States.
Such an ideological mixture has led in a perfectly predictable manner to the confusion of the younger generations. China is still seeking a new rational and healthy way of looking at sexuality Family planning is experiencing great difficulties. Its aim is to keep the population levels under 1. This is yet another reason why the government and the people should recognise the importance of sex education. One of the arguments put forward to stir the government into action, by making a link with social modernisation, suggests that the state of sexual relations is a reliable index of modernity She draws attention to the close links between its results and the pre-existing social programme underlying governmental intervention into education, health and sexuality.
Its very title, which makes use of such terms as wenhua culture and wenming civilisation , places the project within an ideology of national development Nowadays, sexuality poses a number of problems, firstly because society itself has caused a number of sexual inhibitions, but also for other reasons. In , the government of Ferdinand Marcos formally offered sexual education programs at all levels of education.
High school students received elementary and basic-level of biological information and family planning, with emphasis that separation and divorce are illegal in the Philippines. During the s, seminars and international conferences were held by schools of medicine as an addition to ongoing courses on human sexuality.
Research on population control , sexually transmitted diseases, premarital sex, sexual harassment , and AIDS began to be conducted during the s.
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As of more than 30 million Filipinos can reach the Internet through a smartphone,  tablet, laptop or desktop computer. Thereby they have access to practically unlimited information about sexuality, including birth control, sexually transmitted diseases and sexually explicit video. A survey was carried out by Dr. Zablan, a demography professor from the Population Institute of the University of the Philippines , in relation to the views on sexuality by 11, Filipino youth whose ages ranged from 15 to 24 years old.
In , a survey was done by Irala et al among 3, Filipino student teenagers regarding their opinions on relationships, love, sexuality, and related items. This study that targeted third year high school to third year college participants aged 13 to 18 years old revealed that they primarily received information and opinion on love and sexuality from friends and parents. Most female teenagers also oppose sexism.
As of [update] , one source estimated that there were , women working as prostitutes in the Philippines. Prostitution caters to local customers and foreigners. Media attention tends to focus on those areas catering to sex tourism , primarily through bars staffed by bargirls.uanziespeczooren.cf
Cities where there is a high incidence of prostitution are Angeles City , Olongapo , Subic Bay , and Pasay City ,  with the customers usually foreign businessmen from East Asian and Western nations. Philippine legislations penalize involvement in these activities, including the abuse , exploitation , prostitution , and discrimination of children. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Prostitution in the Philippines.
Further information: Pornography and erotica in the Philippines. International Encyclopedia of Sexuality. Archived from the original on Fan Language , Looking Back , news. BMC Public Health. Human sexuality and sexology. Sexual addiction Sex Addicts Anonymous Sexual surrogate. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access.
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