When no radiation data are available for a component that is difficult to replace, it is advisable to carry out a radiation test on the component or material. We propose to our customers to model the whole equipment in 3D and to calculate, via the software FASTRAD, the dose received by each sensitive component during the mission.
The calculated dose will take into account all the elements providing shielding to each component considered — the equipment box, the satellite structure, the surrounding equipment, etc. Such calculations could justify the use of components that are less qualified for radiation, COTS components for exemple, even for short missions, at low doses cubesat, nanosat, etc. If the dose received by the component during the mission is too great, our experts also accompany our customers to identify the best solution to reduce the dose received.
Our expertise gives us the opportunity to carry out research for specific space projects, studies on systems, new products, new effects, etc. Similarly, we can contribute to your responses to tender as a partner for all issues related to radiation. Added to Your Shopping Cart.
This is a dummy description. The first comprehensive overview describing the effects of ionizing radiation on MOS devices, as well as how to design, fabricate, and test integrated circuits intended for use in a radiation environment. Also addresses process-induced radiation effects in the fabrication of high-density circuits. Reviews the history of radiation-hard technology, providing background information for those new to the field.
Includes a comprehensive review of the literature and an annotated listing of research activities in radiation-hardness research. About the Author T. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. As electronic components have decreased in size and increased in complexity, their enhanced sensitivity to the space radiation environment and its effects especially single-event effects, or SEEs have become a major concern for the spacecraft engineer.
In response, the determination of how that radiation propagates through material and how radiation affects specific circuit components have become important considerations in the design of modern spacecraft.
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This chapter reviews the environments responsible for the effects of radiation on microelectronic components and describes the effects these environments have on microelectronics. The spacecraft designer addresses these concerns by first defining the environments the mission is expected to encounter. In turn, these environments are used to determine, through direct testing or modeling, their potential effects on spacecraft performance.
The results of these studies are then used to either modify the design or make use of mitigation techniques, such as radiation shielding to limit the impact of the environment. Spacecraft must operate in an environment with pervasive radiation consisting of a mixture of particles that, depending on the location, can vary only negligibly in intensity over many years or change intensity by many factors in as fast as a few hours. Figure 2. The key point illustrated in Figure 2.
Even within the set of well-used Earth orbits, the radiation environment differs greatly with location and over time—not only the intensity, but also the dominant particles and energies of these particles. Low Earth orbit does not have the same radiation exposure as other Earth orbits, orbits around other planets, or interplanetary space.
This diversity of the radiation environments significantly complicates the ability to qualify electronics for space missions. SEEs—the prompt response of semiconductor devices to the passage of a single ionizing particle—are discussed in more detail below.
The range of penetration of these particles increases significantly with incident particle energy. The remainder of this discussion of space environment radiation will be divided into the following three categories of radiation:.
The first two sources are relatively constant or change on time scales of days to years e. The third is highly variable, on the scale of minutes to a few days, in response to events on the Sun. The major components are hydrogen 89 percent and helium 10 percent. The remaining 1 percent includes the rest of the commonly known elements. GCR electrons do not typically contribute significantly to radiation effects.
The flux of GCRs in interplanetary space increases slowly with distance from the Sun. The solar wind also modulates the GCRs inversely with the solar cycle. At the maximum of solar activity, GCR intensity is at a minimum, and vice versa. This modulation is caused by changes in the solar wind magnetic field.
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Turbulence in the field such as that associated with solar maximum makes propagation of GCRs into the inner solar system more difficult—the particles are scattered more effectively. As the solar wind field relaxes during solar minimum, GCRs can more easily reach the inner solar system. Because of the approximate dipole nature of the geomagnetic field, particles with near vertical velocities in the polar regions are essentially parallel to the magnetic field, so. At lower latitudes, only particles with sufficiently high energy can penetrate through the magnetic shielding.
This toroid is commonly known as the Van Allen belt s and consists of at least two zones: a low-altitude zone, or inner belt, and a high-altitude zone, or outer belt. The electron concentration in the outer zone may vary as much as a factor of 1, As in the case of Earth, many of the other planets in the solar system have been observed to have trapped radiation belts.
The species, abundances, energies, and time variations of particles that are trapped in these radiation belts vary greatly depending on the planet and its magnetic field.
Planetary magnetic fields influence the particle spectrum that is observed near a planet in two ways: First, the magnetic field of the planet shields the planet from solar particles and from GCRs and, second, it allows particles to be trapped near the planet in radiation belts. Earth, for its size, has proportionally one of the most intense magnetic fields in the solar system.
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The maximum energy and fluxes of trapped particles on a magnetosphere are proportional to its magnetic field strength, so Jupiter has much higher particle energies than those in the magnetospheres of Saturn and Earth or in interplanetary space.
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