Six main factors have been identified that associated with research productivity. All these factors will be helpful in the productivity of research universities by the contribution of empowered academics in an empowerment context. Teaching, doing research and having administration tasks are just some of these responsibilities. Academics may have different responsibilities in their work place such as: head of committees, head of departments, deans, directors or vice chancellors.
The most important resources for responding to these responsibilities are academics. Academic professional development will take place when the academics are empowered in any combination of the three major work areas already discussed, depending on their job description.
Organizational development theories and concept have strong link to the theory and practice of empowerment Osborne, ; Brancato, Academic staffs are clearly affected by the changes and pressures in the context of higher education. Therefore, all challenges to research universities affect the academic profession Teichler, In Malaysia, due to the emphasis on accountability of research universities, there is a need to enhance innovation and productivity, accept the rules related to research universities goals, participate and agree with professional assessments and understand and accept the limitations of infrastructure within the context, facilities, resources or time Lee, The development strategies involve empowerment at university level, improving the teaching profession, increasing effectiveness in the system of education as well as staff development.
In the first wave, the first independent university in Malaya at the time of British rule was established. The second wave took place in the 70s and 80s, after the new economic policy and resulted in the establishment of more public universities in order to increase the educational equality among different ethnic groups.
Finally, in the third wave, in the 90s, Malaysia faced with the growth in establishment of private universities and colleges to meet the increasing demand for higher education arising from the c modification of education and commercialization.
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According to Lee , this witnessed the establishment of new public universities, university colleges, private universities, and branch campuses of foreign universities. As of , there are 20 public universities, 28 private universities and university colleges and private colleges.
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Malaysia has decided to upgrade the existing institutions to become world-class research universities, by using the three most effective approaches: creating new world-class universities from scratch clean-slate approach , and merging and transforming into a new university hybrid formula Salmi, The Government has designated four public universities as research universities.
For this reason, the elements of empowerment, meritocracy and academic freedom will need to be considered Abdullah, Social structural changes in organizations can influence individuals' empowerment Spreitzer, ; Zimmerman, The review of literature supports the belief that structural and organizational empowerment influences the psychological empowerment of employees in different work settings. Communication with supervisor and general relations with company are significantly related to the dimension of empowerment such as impact, status, self-determination, and impact, but not related to the competence.
A study by Ghani et al. Based on this rationale, the following hypothesis proposed for this study: There is a positive relationship between structural empowerment and psychological empowerment among academics in research universities. Kanter suggests that the structure of the work environment is a more important determinant of employee attitudes and behaviors within organizations. Organizational culture is one of the contextual factors that can lead to increasing or decreasing level of psychological empowerment. For understanding and evaluating the person-environment fit, organization culture gives a comprehensive model in order to achieve successful empowerment in the work place.
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Researchers in different work settings have efforts to examine the relationship between organizational culture and psychological empowerment. Spreitzer and Sparrowe studies show that a participative organizational culture is positively contributed to perceptions of empowerment. Therefore, organizational culture may be related to academic and non-academic employee reactions to empowerment in higher education context. Organizational culture has various definitions. Harrison defines four cultural types: power, role, people, and tasks Harrison, cited by Salumaa, The competing values by Quinn and Rohrbaugh , describe three ways that a work place can distinguish its norms and values.
These three elements are the structure of organization or organization attribution through these values, adaptability or factors both internally and externally assist to the objectives of organization, and the process of the focus on the objectives or the character that the tasks is accomplish regardless of the outcomes. Wallach suggests three primary organizational cultures: a supportive, which is warm and humanistic; b innovative, which is exciting and dynamic; and c bureaucratic, which is classified and hierarchical.
According to Schein three management cultures within organizations are essential for promoting the effectiveness of work place: 1 executive culture for work place financial health and 2 engineer culture refers to the technology and the knowledge of using the technology 3 operators culture is related to is trust, teamwork, participation, communication and personal interaction, and communication, trust, and teamwork.
Cameron defines five dimensions of culture: a clan, which includes a concern and sensitivity to consumers; b hierarchy; c market-supported stability and control; d adhocracy, defined as flexibility; and e individualism. The structure dimension ranges from flexibility at one extreme to control at the opposite extreme. This dimension identifies the difference between organizations that attempts for accepting agreeable behaviors and the organizations that allow their employees to have their own behaviors.
The focus dimension ranges from an external focus to an internal focus. An internal focus emphasizes factors internal to the organization, such as employee satisfaction, while an external focus emphasizes the organization's ability to function well in the work place environment Quinn and Rohrbaugh ; Dimmit ; Cameron and Quinn Different types of culture exist in organizations. Based on competing values framework CVF , organizations can have the clan, adhocracy, market, and hierarchy culture Figure 2.
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Clan emphasizes shared values and goals, participation, and a sense of family. Spreitzer suggests that future studies should explore the relationships between each of the work characteristics and empowerment. Hence, it may be academically and practically meaningful to check how empowerment is related to organizational culture in the context of higher education.
Empowerment in the work place cannot be without environmental contexts because producing empowerment requires changing organizational cultures and environments. Flexibility Clan Adhocracy Glue: loyalty, commitment Glue: innovation, Leadership: mentor, development facilitator, team builder Leadership: innovator, competitive External long-term Internal short-term Theory of effectiveness: entrepreneur, visionary Human development and Theory of effectiveness: participation produce innovativeness, vision, effectiveness and new resources produce effectiveness Hierarchy Market Glue: formal procedures Glue: goal achievement Leadership: coordinator, Leadership: hard driver, Monitor, organizer competitor, and producer Theory of effectiveness: Theory of effectiveness: control and efficiency with aggressively competing capable processes produce and customer focus effectiveness produce effectiveness Control Figure 2.
Quinn, , p. Effective university culture, controls information, teaches and presents appropriate behavior, and motivates individuals. These components of culture can shape internal relations and values. Organizational culture is a key to the process and structure of decision making in universities.
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Within organizations, including universities, culture defines appropriate behavior, connecting and motivating employees, as well as governing the way information is processed within institutions, while shaping their personal interactions. Shaping of organizational culture depends on the beliefs and practices of trustees, administrators, and academics regarding the responsibilities of campus community members, competitors, and society ASHE, The university culture is full of complexity as the beliefs and practices of trustees, senior administrators, academic staff, campus community members, competitors, and society combine to fundamentally shape the effectiveness of that university.
The literature shows a lack of study about the relationship between organizational culture and psychological empowerment among academics in universities. Organizational culture can be a powerful influence on psychological empowerment Johnson, ; Spreitzer, , But a question arises, that, which type of culture is needed in universities that help academics to be better decision maker, achieve freedom and autonomy, more growth professionally and be more effective in teaching and research and as a whole be more qualified and feel empowered psychologically?
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Therefore, it may be academically and practically meaningful to check how psychological empowerment is related to organizational culture types to gain better insight on the concept of empowerment culture in higher education. Based on this rationale, the following hypothesis proposed for this study: There is a relationship between four types of organizational culture and psychological empowerment among academics in research universities.
If these needs are fulfilled, people will have self- esteem, self-confidence and self-respect. Maslow argued that humans attempt to achieve self-actualizing Robbins, Erg theory by Alderfer is a revised version of Maslow theory and divides human needs into three approaches: Existence needs, psychological needs, and safety needs that include substantial conditions for living and physical conditions for working salary, welfare, hunger and thirst.
Finally, there are growth needs.
http://www.cantinesanpancrazio.it/components/hycaluso/728-controllare-iphone.php The first is the need for achievement. When individuals desire to achieve something, they follow an internal motivation to obtain fulfillment.
The second is the need for affiliation. This is the need for admission, affection and friendship as well as the desire to establish socially interactive behavior relationship. High affiliation needs focus on intercommunicative activities and preference for social relationships above organization tasks. Finally, there is the need for power, or desire to obtain power and authority. Those who have a high need for power always desire to dominate or control others Robbins, It focuses on three key elements: effort- performance relationship, performance-reward relationship, and rewards-personal goals relationship Robbins, Adams formulated the Equity theory of job motivation in It is based on a reasonable and fair exchange.
Adams argues that job satisfaction seen in the fair exchange of task and rewards they get after accomplishing that task in the work place. Equity theory consists three aspects:1 the input that employees put in work; 2 rewards they get and the comparison between input and output; 3 and the comparison between those with equal levels. Herzberg put job satisfaction and dissatisfaction into two different categories that were not connected with each othe.
He noted that workplace behavior can be affected by hygiene the work environment or by motivation the challenge of the work itself. The best result is not from improving the quality of the work environment, but comes from improving the challenge of the work Fisher, Another approach is the person-environment fit theory of job satisfaction.
Hackman and Oldman identified five main facets that can impact job satisfaction including: task identity, task significance, skill variety, autonomy, and feedback. Based on Locke there are three approaches that cause job attitudes. Job attitudes can be derived from differences between what the job offers to the person and what the person expects, to what extent the job fulfills the personal needs and values of employees.
For this study, job satisfaction is based on the theoretical framework which represents an affective reaction to a job and contains multi- dimensional aspects Spector, The professional role of academics has complexities that include teaching, counseling, conducting research and accepting positions in departments and university. Academics often experience confusion about their role expectations.
Empowerment leads to increased work effectiveness. Kanter notes that employees who access to power from information, support, resources and opportunities become more creative and innovative and they can carry out job activities effectively. She believes that when these organizational characteristics are present, employees are more satisfied with their work Kanter, The multi-dimensional role of academics in universities causes role conflict and over load.
Role conflict and work over load may result in job dissatisfaction, especially when the structural empowerment and psychological empowerment are not in place. Academics are more satisfied when they have access to resources and support, information, opportunities in the university they work.
Changes to the research universities occurred at a rapid pace. Therefore, academics who are experiencing the negative effects of restructuring in the educational system may feel greater degrees of job dissatisfaction.
This satisfaction in the work place result from having too much responsibility and workload, limited participation in decision making, limited opportunity, and lack of resources and support. These findings show a current lack of study on empowerment and job satisfaction. Most of these researches have been conducted in the health care and business areas in western settings.
Based on this rationale, the following hypothesis proposed for this study: There is a relationship between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction among academics in research universities. Universities need academics that not only join their university but continue to remain actively involved in creating new knowledge in an innovative manner, utilize new curriculum and techniques for the process of teaching and learning; evaluate the professional programs, follow the international standards of qualification in higher education context, cooperate in the process of decision making, and have interaction with their peers and students.
Thus, it is necessary for universities to enhance the feeling of involvement among their academics that leads to innovation in the context of higher education. Academics commitment to the university is psychological connection with is critical for sufficient levels of participation and involvement in the departments and university Prior research shows that work experiences, personal and organizational factors such as leadership, serve as antecedents to organizational commitment Mowday et al. Thomas and Velthouse suggest that employees with high level of empowerment have more concentration on their tasks which result in high level of organizational commitment.
There are two basic approaches have been used to study organizational commitment: commitment-related attitudes and commitment-related behaviors. The commitment-related attitude approach refers to an affective attachment to the organization, its values and goals Buchanan, cited by Ugboro, Employees with a strong affective commitment remain with an organization because they want to.
The commitment-related behavior approach refers to internal feelings to perform tasks leads to behavioral actions and results in achieving the goals and missions of organization. Employees who have a strong sense of organizational commitment are more likely to contribute to the achievement of organizational goals. They are more motivated, have lower turnover, and feel a greater sense of satisfaction with their tasks, and participate with the productivity of the organization.
Employees with the high level of organizational commitment contribute to the positive work place outcomes.
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