But anyone who goes a little bit further, and analyses that data to draw conclusions on trends and causation leading to proposals on the action required that are supported by that analysis, is into HCM. Not in a big way perhaps, but it is a beginning. At the other end of the scale there are the highly sophisticated approaches to HCM operated by such organizations as Nationwide and the Royal Bank of Scotland. This might be the ultimate destination of HCM but it can be approached on a step-by-step basis. Characteristics of human capital Human capital is non-standardized, tacit, dynamic, context dependent and embodied in people Scarborough and Elias, Constituents of human capital Humancapitalconsistsof intellectualcapital, social capital and organizational capital.
Importance of human capital measurement Measuring and valuing human capital is an aid to people management decision making. People in organizations add value.
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Measurement elements Workforce data, people development data, perceptual data and performance data. Use of a balanced score card. Human Capital Management 79 Questions 1. And whether or not they are different, why should we bother with the latter?
A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice by Michael Armstrong
You have given a presentation on human capital management at a local conference. It dwells on the role of the function to provide advice, guidance and HR services.
Emphasis is given to the strategic role of the function, which is to provide continuing support to the achievement of the strategic objectives of the organization, to advise on business strategies as affected by HR considerations and to ensure that HR strategies are integrated with business strategies. The chapter starts with an analysis of the role of the HR function and then deals with its organization and how its effectiveness can be evaluated. Next it covers various aspects of the work of the function, namely the use of shared service centres, outsourcing and management consultants.
Consideration is also given to marketing HR and HR budgeting. Essentially, the HR function is in the delivery business — providing the advice and services that enable organizations to get things done through people.
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The function ensures that HR strategies, policies and practices are introduced and maintained that cater for everything concerning the employment, development and well-being of people and the relationships that exist between management and the workforce. But one of the issues explored by Francis and Keegan is the tendency for a focus on business performance outcomes to obscure the importance of employee well-being in its own right.
The HR function and its members have to be aware of the ethical dimensions of their work, as described at the end of Chapter 1. The Role and Organization of the HR Function 83 The activities of the HR function The activities carried out within an HR function can be divided into two broad categories: 1 strategic transformational , which is largely concerned with the alignment and implementation of HR and business strategies, and 2 transactional, which covers the main HR service delivery activities of resourcing,learning and development,reward and employee relations.
The HR function is involved in devising HR strategies,policies and practices that meet the needs of the organization and its members and support the attainment of sustained competitive advantage. But as Hope-Hailey et al emphasize, competitive advantage lies in employees themselves, not in HRM practices. The replies are summarized in Table 5. Table 5. Training and development was not very time-consuming but quite important.
Strategic activities were believed to be important but were not mentioned at all as being time-consuming. The emphasis is on transactional activities. Variations in the role The role of the HR function and the practice of human resource management vary immensely in different organizations.click here
Armstrongs_Handbook_of_Human_Resource_Management.pdf - 11TH...
As Sisson has commented, HR management is not a single. The amount of diversity was noted by Crail on the basis of an IRS survey. The IRS survey of HR roles and responsibilities Crail, found that the median HR specialist to employee ratio was employees to each practitioner. But it varies considerably.
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At the upper quartile the ratio was and at the lower quartile it was Broadly, the larger the organization, the higher the ratio of employees to practitioners. Guidelines on organizing HR There are no absolute rules for organizing the function but the following are commonly assumed guidelines. But many HR departments are still run on traditional lines and what this involves is also discussed later. It divides the function into the following three parts. Centres of expertise These specialize in the provision of high level advice and services on key HR activities.
The most common expertise areas were training and development 79 per cent , recruitment 67 per cent , reward 60 per cent and employee relations 55 per cent.
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Strategic business partners These work with line managers to help them reach their goals through effective strategy formulation and execution Ulrich and Brockbank, b. The concept of business partnering is considered in more detail in Chapter 5. These include such activities as recruitment, absence monitoring and advice on dealing with employee issues such as discipline and absenteeism.
Shared service centres are dealt with in more detail later in this chapter. Although this Ulrich model has attracted a great deal of attention, the CIPD survey found that only 18 per cent of respondents had implemented all three legs, although 47 per cent had implemented one or two elements with business partners being the most common 29 per cent. As Reilly commented, respondents to the survey mentioned problems in introducing the new model. The model can also hamper communication between those engaged in different HR activities. Other impediments were technological failure, inadequate resources in HR and skills gaps.
Centres of expertise provide higher quality advice. Hope-Hailey et al raised questions about the Ulrich model on the basis of their research in a bank. Their conclusions are given below. He suggested that this: might consist of a team of 12 people serving a workforce of around 1, on average, there was one HR practitioner or assistant for every employees. Some attempts to. The Role and Organization of the HR Function 87 deal with this would have been made by shifting people management responsibilities to line managers — not always with entirely positive results.
Evaluating the HR function It is necessary to evaluate the contribution of the HR function in order to ensure that it is effective at both the strategic level and in terms of service delivery and support. The prime criteria for evaluating the work of the function are its ability to operate strategically and its capacity to deliver the levels of services required.
HR has to be responsive — clear about what it is there for and what services it offers, and easy to contact. In evaluation it is useful to remember the distinction made by Tsui and Gomez-Mejia between process criteria — how well things are done, and output criteria — the effectiveness of the end-result. A summary of measures and their possible uses is given in Table 5. Users can be asked formally to assess the extent to which the members of the HR function demonstrate their abilities in the following ways. Provide relevant, clear, convincing and practical advice.
Generally reveal their understanding and expertise. It sets out the nature of the service provided, the volume and quality to be achieved by the service and the response times the provider must attain after receiving requests for help. The agreement provides the basis for monitoring and evaluating the level of service. These can obtain opinions on such matters as their work, their pay, how they are treated, their views about the company and their managers, how well they are kept informed, the opportunities for learning and career development and their working environment and facilities.
Benchmarking In addition to internal data it desirable to benchmark HR services. This means comparing what the HR function is doing with what is happening in similar organizations.
STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Organizations such as Saratoga provide benchmarking data under standardized and therefore comparable headings for their clients. The four headings of the HR scorecard are: 1. HR competencies — administrative expertise, employee advocacy, strategy execution and change agency. HR practices — communication, work design, selection, development, measurement and rewards. HR systems — alignment, integration and differentiation.
HR deliverables — workforce mindset, technical knowledge, and workforce behaviour. Preferred approach to evaluation There is much to be said for the systematic HR scorecard approach although some organizations may have to develop their own headings as a basis for evaluation. There are plenty of typical measures but no standard set exists. Perhaps, as Guest and Peccei suggest: The most sensible and important indicator of HRM effectiveness will be the judgements of key stakeholders… The political, stakeholder, perspective on organizations.
In other words, at the end of the day, it is always the qualitative interpretation by those in positions of power that matters most.
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